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The Siđa Formation of SE Iceland: Emplacement Processes and Depositional Environment

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The Siđa Formation consists of at least seven stacked sheet-like basaltic sequences comprising basal diamict, overlying largely degassed lava and uppermost hyaloclastite. The maximum thickness of each repeated stack is about 70m, but is widely variable, and not all units are always present. The lava-hyaloclastite contact locally displays spectacular flame-like intrusions (viscous fingers) of lava up to several metres in length into the overlying hyaloclastite. There are three published models for the environment of deposition of this formation: on the continental shelf (Bergh and Sigvaldason, 1991), beneath >900m thick ice (Smellie, 2008) and beneath thin (

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