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CATEGORIES:Isaac Newton Institute Seminar Series
SUMMARY:The Second Laws of Quantum Thermodynamics - Oppenh
eim\, J (University College London)
DTSTART;TZID=Europe/London:20131024T140000
DTEND;TZID=Europe/London:20131024T150000
UID:TALK48457AThttp://talks.cam.ac.uk
URL:http://talks.cam.ac.uk/talk/index/48457
DESCRIPTION:The second law of thermodynamics tells us which st
ate transformations are so statistically unlikely
that they are effectively forbidden\, and applies
to systems composed of many particles. However\, u
sing tools from quantum information theory\, we ar
e seeing that one can make sense of thermodynamics
in the regime where we only have a small number o
f particles interacting with a heat bath\, or when
we have highly correlated systems and wish to mak
e non-statistical statements about them. Is there
a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Her
e\, we find that for processes which are cyclic or
very close to cyclic\, the second law for microsc
opic or highly correlated systems takes on a very
different form than it does at the macroscopic sca
le\, imposing not just one constraint on what stat
e transformations are possible\, but an entire fam
ily of constraints. In particular\, we find a fami
ly of quantum free energies which generalise the t
raditional ones\, and show that they can never inc
rease. The ordinary second law corresponds to the
non-increasing of one of these free energies\, wit
h the remainder\, imposing additional constraints
on thermodynamic transitions of quantum systems. W
e further find that there are three regimes which
govern which family of second laws govern state tr
ansitions\, depending on how cyclic the thermodyna
mical process is. In one regime one can cause an a
pparent violation of the usual second law through
a process of embezzling work from a large system w
hich remains arbitrarily close to its original sta
te. By making precise the definition of thermal op
erations\, the laws of thermodynamics take on a si
mple form with the first law defining the class of
thermal operations\, the zeroeth law emerging as
a unique equilibrium condition\, and the remaining
laws being a monotonicity property of our general
ised free energies based on the Renyi-divergence.
The derivations use tools from majorisation theory
.\n\n
LOCATION:Seminar Room 1\, Newton Institute
CONTACT:Mustapha Amrani
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